- Aikido ( Kanji : 合気道)
Aikido is one of the Martial Art that created by Morihei Ueshiba, December 14th , 1883 – April 26th ,1969, also called “ousensei” or Master. Aikido created from Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujitsu. Aikido is Combination of Sword Technique, Kenjutsu, and Jujitsu. Kenjutsu Influence can seen by Aikido’s Foot Movement Setting, while Jujitsu Influence can seen by Aikido’s Submission and Throwing Technique.
Word “Aikido” come from three kanji’s word :
- 合 – Ai – Combine, Harmonize.
- 気 – Ki – Spirit, Life, Energy.
- 道– Dou/Dō –Way
This martial art created by Emphasizes Harmonization and Harmony between Individually Ki Energy and Universe Ki Energy. Until now, Aikido have many of “Style” that doesn’t lose their base technique. Such as “Nisyo Style” that emphasizes Their Technique to using Sword ( Bouken ) and Stick ( Jo ). And also there are “Iwama Style” that emphasizes their technique to Speed and Dodging opponent attack.
Kendo (剣道 kendō, lit. “sword way”) is a modern Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship ( kenjutsu ) and uses bamboo swords ( shinai ) and protective armor ( bōgu ). Today, it is widely practiced within Japan and many other nations across the world.
The introduction of bamboo practice swords ( shinai ) and armour ( bōgu ) to sword training is attributed to Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato during the Shotoku Era (1711–1715). Naganuma developed the use of bōgu and established a training method using the shinai.
In addition, the inscription on the gravestone of Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori’s (Ippūsai) (山田平左衛門光徳(一風斎)?, 1638–1718) third son Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato (長沼 四郎左衛門 国郷?, 1688–1767), the 8th headmaster of the Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū Kenjutsu, states that his exploits included improving the bokuto and shinai, and refining the armour by adding a metal grille to the men (head piece) and thick cotton protective coverings to the kote (gauntlets). Kunisato inherited the tradition from his father Heizaemon in 1708, and the two of them worked hard together to improve the bogu until Heizaemon’s death.
Chiba Shusaku Narimasa, founder of the Hokushin Ittō-ryū Hyōhō (北辰一刀流兵法), introduced Gekiken (撃剣) (full contact duels with shinai and bogu) to the curriculum of this koryū in the 1820s. Due to the popularity and the large number of students of the Hokushin Ittō-ryū Hyōhō at the end of the Edo-period, this kind of practice contributed greatly to the spread of shinai and bōgu all over Japan
Karate (Kanji : 空手) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (called te (手?), literally “hand”; tii in Okinawan) under the influence of Chinese martial arts, particularly Fujian White Crane. Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands, and palm-heel strikes. Historically, and in some modern styles, grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital point strikes are also taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家?).
Karate developed on the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was brought to the Japanese mainland in the early 20th century during a time of cultural exchanges between the Japanese and the Chinese. It was systematically taught in Japan after the Taisho era, In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs. In this era of escalating Japanese militarism, the name was changed from 唐手 (“Chinese hand” or “Tang hand”) to 空手 (“empty hand”) – both of which are pronounced karate – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style. After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there.
The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to greatly increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, and in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Oriental martial arts. Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art.
Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that “the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques … Movies and television … depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow … the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing” Shoshin Nagamine said, “Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one’s own creative efforts